人機

Android平臺:人機界面開發的四個要點

字號+ 發布者:3d3d 來源:工業設計 2009-05-05 [在線反饋] 我要評論

多方面來看,Android是一種革命性的開源平臺,作為開發商在創造更新以及創新服務和應用上有著許多的自由度。為了把G1 Android UI做的盡可能一致,人們已經付出了大量的努力。然而,當在一個開源的環境中工作時,要維持界面和用戶體驗上高水平的一致性是棘手的。開發商可以(并且應該)自由地選擇各種應用軟件...

Android現已開始供貨。它現在是什么樣子?通過專注于用戶界面(UI)的開發,如何最大化用戶的體驗?下面是四條重要的訣竅。DGa大灣區工業設計網

開源和人機界面的一致性DGa大灣區工業設計網

從多方面來看,Android是一種革命性的開源平臺,作為開發商在創造更新以及創新服務和應用上有著許多的自由度。為了把G1 Android UI做的盡可能一致,人們已經付出了大量的努力。然而,當在一個開源的環境中工作時,要維持界面和用戶體驗上高水平的一致性是棘手的。開發商可以(并且應該)自由地選擇各種應用軟件,讓它們看起來應該如何以及如何表現。從產品的觀點來看,要保持每一個應用軟件的設計與外表、以及對基本操作平臺的感覺的緊密關系是至關重要的。用戶界面需要一致且可預測,讓用戶不會面對他們自己的電話不知所措。DGa大灣區工業設計網

Android會讓開發商逐漸開發出奢華的用戶界面,這往往要通過不同的開發商向不同的方向擴展來實現,并隨著時間的推移無疑將變得更好。然而,設計工程師仍然必須確保與整個用戶界面范例的一致性,這樣才能縮小形式和功能的碎片化并提供堅實的用戶體驗。DGa大灣區工業設計網

支持多種互動模式DGa大灣區工業設計網

Android被設計在手機外圍就可以支持廣泛的設備配置。例如,它能夠運行在僅具有大觸摸屏控制的設備上,或者,運行在具有4個導航方向鍵的小屏幕設備上。為了做出一種適用于大量不同上下文的可擴展的互動范例,開發商付出了大量的努力。DGa大灣區工業設計網

這意味著較之于其它的平臺有很少的范例差異。例如,在間接操作上下文中有一個加亮區,就像當用戶使用一臺D-Pad的時候,這個加亮區在觸摸互動期間會消失。當采用觸摸屏時,真的沒有必要加亮圖標或列表項,因為你的手指就是加亮區。DGa大灣區工業設計網

另一個差異在于,動作被分為針對項目(item)以及針對屏幕的動作。針對項目的動作是諸如把圖像“通過MMS發送”這樣的事情,并且僅僅可用于單個的項目。針對屏幕的動作是那些你想要在屏幕上對所有的項目執行的動作,如把圖像“按照時間分類”。針對項目的動作可以通過長時間按住每一個項目來實現,針對屏幕的動作通過菜單鍵實現。因為存在當有些項目沒有被加亮的情況,不推薦在菜單鍵下面放置有前后關系的、針對項目的動作。把這一點放在個人電腦的條件下,你如何能夠剛好點一個對象而不看到鼠標在哪個位置呢?DGa大灣區工業設計網

一般來說,為Android設計應用軟件意味著,在不了解設備將做什么配置或者在不了解是哪一種設備的情況下進行設計。因此,應用軟件需要支持面向觸摸屏以及非觸摸屏的用戶行為、假設以及互動作用。DGa大灣區工業設計網

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告示管理DGa大灣區工業設計網

Android具有一種非插入的獨一無二的告示系統,然而,它隨處可以獲取并且本質上具有很強的可擴展性。下拉窗口本質上就是對狀態欄的一種擴展:它可以在所有的應用軟件內調用,并為新的事件告示提供附加的動作和信息。DGa大灣區工業設計網

這種告示系統非常靈活且可擴展,任何第三方開發商均能夠在這里披露新的事件告示。如果有人創建一種新的Twitter應用軟件,這個人提供的新動作可以變為一個新的事件告示。然而,至關重要的是考慮應用軟件所處的環境和事件,并經濟地采用告示系統以便于盡可能最好地利用用戶有限的注意廣度。DGa大灣區工業設計網

支持無縫的互動DGa大灣區工業設計網

Android酷斃之處在于它的內建的意圖處理功能,這是一段能夠要求在其它應用軟件中使用某一功能的應用軟件。網絡瀏覽器就能夠要求運行適當的PDF文件的閱讀器,而在設備上能夠處理這一請求的應用軟件能夠無縫地與該功能聯用。DGa大灣區工業設計網

從框架的觀點來看,這不僅是一種巨大的可擴展的系統,而且從用戶的觀點來看非常強大。意圖處理使得開發商有可能支持無縫的互動,使得一個用戶任務能夠跨越多個應用軟件。它是一種以人的任務為中心的方法,而不是以系統應用為中心的方法。因此,不管它稱為什么,Android就是一種非常人性化的平臺。DGa大灣區工業設計網

人機界面開發.jpgDGa大灣區工業設計網

關于作者DGa大灣區工業設計網

Daniel Johansson是The Astonishing Tribe (TAT)的交互設計工程師。TAT是一家提供用戶界面技術的瑞典公司,該公司為發往全球的2.4億部移動電話提供了令人叫絕的用戶體驗。TAT是OHA的成員,并已被谷歌公司邀請為Android設計用戶界面。Daniel是為Google Android UI工作的TAT設計團隊的一員。DGa大灣區工業設計網

以下為英文原文DGa大灣區工業設計網

Android platforms: Four tips for interface developmentDGa大灣區工業設計網

Android is available. What now? How do I maximize user experience by focusing on UI development? Here are four important tips.DGa大灣區工業設計網

Open source and UI consistencyDGa大灣區工業設計網

Android is a revolutionary open source platform in many ways and as a developer there are many degrees of freedom in creating new and innovative services and applications. A great deal of effort has gone into making the G1 Android UI as consistent as possible. However, maintaining a high level of consistency in the interface and user experience is tricky when working in an open source environment. Developers are (and should be) free to choose how applications should look and behave. Keeping a tight relationship between the design of individual applications and the look and feel of the underlying platform is important from a product perspective. A user interface, which is consistent and predictable, results in a user who won’t feel lost in their own phone.DGa大灣區工業設計網

Android will have the luxury to be incrementally developed, often branching out in different directions by different developers, and will undoubtedly become better and better over time. But designers still must ensure consistency with the overall UI paradigm, so as to reduce fragmentation of form and function and provide a solid user experience.DGa大灣區工業設計網

Supporting multiple interaction modesDGa大灣區工業設計網

Android is designed to support a wide range of device configurations right out of the box. For instance, it can be run on a large screen touch-only device or on a small screen device with 4-way navigation keys. Great effort has been put into making one, scalable interaction paradigm that works in a large number of different contexts.DGa大灣區工業設計網

This means a few paradigm differences compared with other platforms. For instance, there is a highlight in indirect manipulation contexts, like when a user uses a D-Pad, which disappears during touch interaction. There is no real need for highlighting an icon or list item when using a touch screen--your finger is the highlight.DGa大灣區工業設計網

Another difference is that actions are divided into item-specific and screen-specific ones. Item-specific actions are things such as "Send via MMS" for an image, and only available for individual items. Screen-specific actions are those things you would like to perform on all items in a screen, such as "Sort by time" for all images. The item-specific actions are available via long press on individual items, screen-specific actions via the menu key. Since there are cases when items have no highlight, it’s not recommended to place contextual, item-specific actions under the menu key. To put this in PC terms--how can you right-click an object without seeing where the cursor is located?DGa大灣區工業設計網

In general, designing an application for Android means designing without knowing what the configuration for the device will be or even knowing which device. Thus, an application needs to support user behavior, assumptions and interactions for both touch and non-touch devices.DGa大灣區工業設計網

Notifications managementDGa大灣區工業設計網

Android has a unique notification system that is non-intrusive, yet universally accessible and very extensible in its nature. The pull down window shade is essentially an extension of the status bar: It can be reached from within all applications and provides additional actions and information for new event notifications.DGa大灣區工業設計網

The notification system is very flexible and scalable--any 3rd party developer can expose new event notifications here. If someone creates a new Twitter application, a new twit from someone can become a new event notification. However, it’s important to consider the ecology of applications and events and use the notification system sparingly in order to make best possible use of the user’s limited attention span.DGa大灣區工業設計網

Support seamless interactionDGa大灣區工業設計網

A cool thing about Android is its built-in intent handling functionality: an application can ask to use functionality in other applications: A Web browser can ask for suitable viewers of PDF-files, and the applications on the device that can handle this can seamlessly contribute with functionality.DGa大灣區工業設計網

This is a great, extensible system from a framework perspective, but also very powerful from a user perspective. Intent handling makes it possible for developers to support seamless interaction, making a user task span over multiple applications. It’s a human task-centered approach, rather than a systemic application-centered one. So despite its name, Android is a very human platform.DGa大灣區工業設計網

About the authorDGa大灣區工業設計網

Daniel Johansson is an Interaction Designer at The Astonishing Tribe (TAT). TAT is the Swedish based company that provides user interface technology that has added the "WOW" affect to the user experience in more than 240 million mobile phones shipped worldwide TAT. TAT is a member of the OHA and was invited by Google to design the user interface for Android. Dan was on the TAT design team for the Google Android UI.DGa大灣區工業設計網

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